"Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria. It included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the western portion of Libya.). Sadiqi, F. (2007). “Efforts to force us to use Arabic are a form of Arab imperialism”, explains Ait Bachir. Tamazight is the standardized version of the Amazigh languages. Ottoman rule after the 16th century brought a dominant minority of Turks to Algeria, particularly concentrated in the large cities; for a while, Ottoman Turkish became a major governmental language. "[23], In 1968 the Algerian government decreed that all civil positions use the Arabic language. Algerian Arabic (or darija) is spoken by 85% of the total population and 83% of Arab speakers. CodyCross - Circus - Berber language spoken in the Northeast of Algeria - AnswersMob.com. In Tunisia, the local Amazigh language is usually referred to as Shelha, a term which has been observed in Morocco as well. The Government of Algeria says it has agreed to a series of demands by the ethnic Berber community, including official recognition of the Berber language. It was borrowed from Latin barbari. A modernised form of the Tifinagh alphabet, called Neo-Tifinagh, was adopted in Morocco in 2003 for writing Berber, but many Moroccan Berber publications still use the Berber Latin alphabet. The Lycée Cheikh Bouamama (Arabic: ثانوية الشيخ بوعمامة‎), originally called the Lycée Descartes,[33] took in students from the tchitchi (children of wealthy) backgrounds instead of bohi ("rejects"). Many students in the programme attended universities abroad after graduation. The Berber and French Languages Since the year 2002, Berber has become recognised as one of Algerias national languages, which is appropriate because 99% of the population of Algeria speak either Arabic … Algerian Arabic does not necessarily stem from written Arabic. [8] Although not a member, they attend for it. [10], One group, the Linguasphere Observatory, has attempted to introduce the neologism "Tamazic languages" to refer to the Berber languages. Berber has been recognized as a "national language" by constitutional amendment since 8 May 2002.In February, 2016, a constitutional resolution was passed making Berber an official language alongside Arabic. Algeria marked the 50th anniversary of her independence on July 5. [citation needed]. The strong position of French in Algeria was little affected by the Arabization policy. Algeria today has two major Berber languages, both in the northeast. The Latin word is also found in the Arabic designation for these populations, البربر (al-Barbar); see Names of the Berber people. This policy of exclusion pushed many Berber writers, journalists, academics, and scholars to found the Berber Academy in 1966, later renamed the Berber Assembly. These are generally similar to dialects spoken in adjacent areas of Morocco and Tunisia. Mohamed Benrabah, author of "Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria," said that as of 2007, "Arabization is either complete or almost complete" in the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Religious Affairs and registry offices in Algerian town halls. In other Berber-speaking areas, this name was lost. The official languages of Algeria are Arabic and Tamazight (Berber),[2] as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter. This achievement was considered the first victory for the Berber movement in Algeria. Morocco and Algeria After independence from France, all Maghreb countries pursued a policy of Arabization in an attempt to replace the hitherto dominant French with Arabic, and to marginalize, or even eradicate minority Berber languages.As a result, until the early 1990s, Berber was excluded from all official use, as well as from all education. In the west, Arabic dominates to a degree that The division of Moroccan Berber languages into three groups, as used by Ethnologue, is common in linguistic publications, but is significantly complicated by the presence of local differences: Shilha is subdivided into Shilha of the Draa River valley, Tasusit (the language of the Souss) and several other mountain languages. They speak various Amazigh languages belonging to the Afro-Asiatic family related to ancient Egyptian. [8] In 1997, Slimane Chikh, the Minister of Education, said that French needed to be phased out because it was preventing Arabic from reaching prominence and because it was leading Algerians away from English, the primary international language of commerce, computers, and science. This in turn suggests that the C-Group population—which, along with the Kerma culture, inhabited the Nile valley immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers—spoke Afro-Asiatic languages. After Algeria became independent in 1962, it tried to improve fluency by importing Arabic teachers from Egypt and Syria. Early colonial censuses may provide better documented figures for some countries; however, these are also very much out of date. In Algeria, as elsewhere, spoken Arabic differs very substantially from written Arabic; Algerian Arabic has a much-simplified vowel system, a substantially changed vocabulary and does not have the case endings of the written Arabic. [citation needed] Malika Rebai Mammri, author of "The Syndrome of the French Language in Algeria," said "French continues to be the dominant language in business and professional circles" and that "certain aspects of formal education and research are still carried in the French language and a great part of the economic and industrial sectors and press still use French extensively. In Algeria: the Tamazight-speaking zones in Algeria are less homogenous than in Morocco. They belong to the Afro-Asiatic languages phylum. [27] The plans were complicated by the flight of 25,000 European teachers from Algeria and the illiteracy rate of 90%. The Berbers live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauritania. Berber became a constitutional national language of Algeria in 2001, and a constitutionally official language of Morocco in 2011. Berber is an official language of Morocco and a national language of Algeria, Mali and Niger. The official languages of Algeria are Arabic and Tamazight (Berber), as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter. (2004) A sociolinguistic perspective on Arabisation and language use in Algeria. Berber languages are spoken today by some 14 million people, mostly in scattered … (See related story “In Algeria, the Berber Language … Persecuted under dictator Moamer Kadhafi, who denied their existence, the Berbers of Libya have called for their language to be given official status alongside Arabic and for greater political representation. As areas of Libya south and west of Tripoli such as the Nafusa Mountains were taken from the control of Gaddafi government forces in early summer 2011, Berber workshops and exhibitions sprang up to share and spread the Tamazight culture and language.[27]. Most Jews of Algeria once spoke dialects of Arabic specific to their community, collectively termed Judeo-Arabic. Otherwise there is consensus on the outlines of the family: The various classifications differ primarily in what they consider to be Eastern Berber, and in how many varieties they recognise as distinct languages. The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) stated "Arabic was chosen at the outset as the language which was to represent Algeria’s identity and religion, and official attitudes towards both Berber and French have been largely negative. [22] He also said that the Ministry of Education had been affected to a "lesser extent. [23][24], Although regional councils in Libya's Nafusa Mountains affiliated with the National Transitional Council reportedly use the Berber language of Nafusi and have called for it to be granted co-official status with Arabic in a prospective new constitution,[25][26] it does not have official status in Libya as in Morocco and Algeria. Since independence, the government has pursued a policy of linguistic Arabization of education and bureaucracy, which has resulted in limiting the use of Berber and the Arabization of many Berber-speakers. In Mali and Niger, there are a few schools that teach partially in Tuareg languages. This in turn suggests that the C-Group population—which, along with the Kerma culture, inhabited the Nile valley immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers—spoke Afro-Asiatic languages. The Official Language of Nigeria Is Arabic The Arabic language has been Algerias official language since 1963 and today its spoken by approximately 81% of the Algerian population. Wikipedia Berber Studies 3. Latin (which later developed into the brief-existent, little-known African Romance language) was the language of the Roman occupation; it became widely spoken in the coastal towns, and Augustine attests that in his day it was gaining ground over Punic. Photo: Vermundo/Wikipedia Converting to Islam. Algerian Arabic and Berber are the native languages of over 99% of Algerians, with Algerian Arabic spoken by about 72% and Berber by 27.4%. "Berber Phonology". Today, there are six major varieties of Berber language. Arabic remained Algeria's only official language until 2002, when Berber was recognized as a second national language. Tamazight is the standardized version of the Amazigh languages. European languages distinguish between the words "Berber" and "barbarian", while Arabic has the same word al-Barbari for both meanings. (Thamazight poems as text & MP3), Map of Tamazight language from the LL-Map Project, Amawal: The online open source Berber dictionary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berber_languages&oldid=998251902, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is estimated that there are between 14 and 25 million speakers of Berber languages, but exact numbers are difficult to ascertain, since most Maghrebcountries do not record language data in their censuses, and many Berber-speaking people are hard-to-reach nomads. The French language, though, has no official status in Algeria, even though it was introduced during French colonial times and is still taught in schools, used in higher education and in government. [17], Following the spread of Islam, some Berber scholars also utilised the Arabic script. [24] When it was nationalized it served members of the educational, military, and political elites. Reformists, however, say promoting Tamazight is key to preserving the country’s Berber identity and fostering multiculturalism, individual rights and decentralisation. [20] On 17 June 2011 King Mohammed VI announced in a speech of new constitutional reform that "Tamazight" became an official language of Morocco alongside Arabic and will be used in all the administrations in the future. Algeria recently celebrated its 50th anniversary, but for those who are not Arab, repression continues. Non-native speakers learn Literary Arabic at school, and as such a relative majority of the population understands Standard Arabic or the Algerian Arabic dialect. [24] Around 1997 the Algerian government had passed laws prohibiting officials from speaking any language other than Arabic publicly. Etymologically, the Berber root M-Z-Ɣ (Mazigh) (singular noun: Amazigh, feminine: Tamazight) means "free man", "noble man", or "defender". Benrabah "Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria" p. 194. The 1963 constitution and the 1976 constitution do not mention Berber and French. While the first TV programmes in Berber language were launched in January 2010 and Berber teaching soon may become universal, Berber activists still hold government is working against them. Adding up the population (according to the official census of 2004) of the Berber-speaking regions as shown on a 1973 map from the CIA results in at least 10 million speakers, not counting the numerous Berber population which lives outside these regions in the bigger cities. The Berber language is a part of the Afro-Asiatic linguistic family. The Berbers or Amazigh are an ethnic group who live in the countries around the Sahara from the Siwa oasis in Egypt in the north-east to Mali in the … Continue reading The Berbers of Algeria It included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the western portion of Libya.). ", "La mondialisation, une chance pour la francophonie", Office national des statistiques d’Algérie, Algeria wants to learn English from India, Insécurité dans les établissements scolaires Une écolière de 7 ans violée au lycée Bouamama (ex-Descartes), Centre d'études et de recherches en planification linguistique, Pratiques langagières d’étudiants en médecine de la Faculté d’Alger, http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/country/Algeria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Algeria&oldid=994427197, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Pages using Infobox country languages with unknown parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Benrabah, Mohamed. It's a helpful topic that will give you also the opportunity to have all of this puzzle's answers. In the last few weeks, Algeria's Berber region has witnessed a number of protests after a proposed draft law making the Berber language compulsory in schools across the … The reforms were intended to be implemented in September 2001 but the Ministry of the Interior suspended them on 3 September 2001. The implied tree is: Ethnologue, mostly following Aikhenvald and Militarev (1991), treats the eastern varieties differently: Blench (ms, 2006) has the following classification:[44], The Berber languages have influenced Maghrebi Arabic languages, such as Moroccan, Algerian, Libyan and Tunisian Arabic. Arabic became the official national language of Algeria in 1990, and most Algerians speak one of several dialects of vernacular Arabic. Algerian Sign Language is used in Algeria by the deaf; it has sometimes been used on national TV. In, Rössler, Otto. [20], The 1963 and 1976 constitutions do not mention Berber and French. The name Tamaziɣt is the current native name of the Berber language in the Moroccan Middle Atlas and Rif regions and the Libyan Zuwarah region. "[22] Official documents of ministries which had not been affected partially or fully to Arabization are often written in French, and Arabic translations of these documents are provided when needed. Berber has been recognized as a national language by constitutional amendment since 8 May 2002. According to Peter Behrens and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, linguistic evidence suggests that the peoples of the C-Group culture in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan spoke Berber languages. Algeria adopted Berber as a national language earlier than Morocco in 2002. [13] A number of extinct populations are believed to have spoken Afroasiatic languages of the Berber branch. They were first written in the Libyco-Berber abjad, which is still used today by the Tuareg in the form of Tifinagh. In Language Conflict in Algeria , Mohamed Benrabah surveys nearly two centuries’ worth of language politics and linguistic culture in Algeria, from the eve of the A good deal of the book deals with Berber. Lucky You! To remedy this, the Algerian government hired 10,988 academic monitors. The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today. [26] In 1964-1965 primary grade one was fully Arabized with all other levels each receiving ten hours of Arabic per period. ", « Loi n° 02-03 portent révision constitutionnelle », "Libya's mountain Berber see opportunity in war", "Amid a Berber Reawakening in Libya, Fears of Revenge", "African Languages at Michigan State University (ASC) | Michigan State University", "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat 2004", "ALGERIA: population growth of the whole country", "Euromosaic -Berber (Tamazight) in Spain", "What does Berber sound like?" Although the Maghrib has been, for the most part, "Arabized" by language and Islamic culture over the centuries, there are still groups of Berbers, like the nine Saharan Berber tribes, who have retained much of their original Berber traditions and characteristics. French is used in the high school level in the exact sciences, the medical sciences, and technology studies. Among the remaining Algerian Berber languages (or dialects) are Kabyle (Taqbaylit), Mzabi (Tumzabt), Chaouiya (Tachawit), Chenoua, Tamahaq and several others. This is the answer to the clue : Berber language spoken in the Northeast of Algeria CodyCross. Writing . Berber has been recognized as a "national language" by constitutional amendment since 8 May 2002. The Tamazight language and the Amazigh people Tamazight or Amazigh language1, also referred to as Berber in western literature, is the language … In Language Conflict in Algeria, Mohamed Benrabah surveys nearly two centuries’ worth of language politics and linguistic culture in Algeria… Some specialized fields offer courses in French and courses in Arabic. Before, during and after Phoenician settlers' arrival, Berber remained spoken throughout ancient Algeria (Numidia), as later attested by early Tifinagh (or Libyco-Berber) inscriptions, and as understood from Latin and Greek historical sources. CodyCross is a new take on the crossword puzzle, or as the authors call it, "A word game from out of this world!". In the Sahara, more conservative Bedouin dialects, grouped under the name Saharan Arabic, are spoken; in addition, the many Sahrawi refugees at Tindouf speak Hassaniya Arabic. [18] There are now three writing systems in use for Berber languages: Tifinagh, the Arabic script, and the Berber Latin alphabet.[19]. There is historical evidence from medieval Berber manuscripts that all indigenous North Africans from Libya to Morocco have at some point called their language Tamaziɣt. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria.A very sparse population extends into the whole Sahara and the northern part of the Sahel. [22] Benrabah said that as of 2007 "the use of French in a number of higher domains has diminished since the colonial era when the language held an unassailable position in the media, education, government, and administration. Both Berber and French out Berber language. `` ) could read and write in.... Stated `` official attitudes towards both Berber and French `` lesser extent ] 1964-1965! Worlds and groups and it has borrowed from Berber, French is used in educational... 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